DISCOVERIES REPORTS (ISSN 2393249X), 2022, volume 5

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CITATION: Hange N, Somagutta MR, Sharma A, Agadi K, Ngaba NN, Paikkattil N, Pormento MKLL. Latent Tuberculosis: Challenges and Opportunities for Diagnosis and Treatment. Discoveries Reports 2022; 5(1): e27. DOI: 10.15190/drep.2022.1

Latent Tuberculosis: Challenges and Opportunities  for Diagnosis and Treatment

Namrata Hange1,*, Manoj Reddy Somagutta2, Amrit Sharma3Kuchalambal Agadi4, Neguemadji Ngardig Ngaba5, Nidhin Paikkattil6, Maria Kezia Lourdes Ligsay Pormento7

(1) Eurasian Cancer Research Council, Mumbai, India
(2) Department of Medicine, Avalon University School of Medicine, Willemstad, Curaçao
(3) Department of Community Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
(4) Seema Dental College and Hospital, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
(5) Faculté de Médecine Bon Samaritain of Walia, N'djamena, Chad
(6) Indian institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India
(7) Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health, Quezon, Philippines

* Corresponding author: Dr. Namrata Hange, Eurasian Cancer Research Council, B - 1210, Golf Scappe, Diamond Garden, Basant Garden, Chembur, Mumbai, 400071, India; Phone: +917 709052487; drnamratah3@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

It is imperative to contain this silent epidemic of tuberculosis (TB), considering the monstrous burden of TB incident cases and deaths. As part of the WHO initiative of the end tuberculosis strategy, TB-preventive treatment (TPT) initiation to reduce TB incidence has been considered the ultimate preventive resort. This article addresses the challenges and strategies for latent TB management. Targeted LTBI Screening in the population with suspicion of TB infection with an effective contact screening strategy is an ideal preliminary step. Along with precise, short regimen treatment initiation for LTBI, the health care system ought to ensure the entire course of therapy. Effective utilization of existing infrastructure and resources for TB elimination is ideal for handling contact screening and LTBI management. Inconsistent guidelines about TB contact screening and cognizance of the population regarding attending an LTBI screening clinic are the first-line barriers hindering screening rates. Poverty, malnutrition, TB-HIV co-infection, long-term treatment, adverse effects, and associated out-of-pocket expenditure pose significant concerns for LTBI treatment. A cost-effective treatment regimen with a shorter duration and fewer adverse effects, population-specific treatment strategies with social intervention-teaching, and dedicated health care staff are crucial to ensuring the initiation and completion of LTBI treatment. Embracing LTBI strategy with active TB patient community engagement and education is essential for TB eradication across the globe. However, the most effective resort for TB elimination requires a specific LTBI management program. Until then, optimizing our current tools and strategies is essential for progress towards the TB elimination.

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