DISCOVERIES REPORTS (ISSN 2393249X), 2021, volume 4
Access FULL text of the manuscript here: Full text (PDF)
CITATION: Khan RK, Siraj MA, Kheya HR, Khalid S, Tabassum M, Zaman SB. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and their health impact on children. Discoveries Reports, 2020; 4: e17. DOI: 10.15190/drep.2021.2 Submitted: Nov. 16, 2020; Revised: Feb. 10, 2021; Accepted: Feb. 19, 2021; Published: March 13, 2021
Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and their health impact on children
Raihan K. Khan (1,*), Md Afjalus Siraj (2), Habiba Rahman Kheya (3), Sumaira Khalid (4), Mehnaz Tabassum (5), Sojib Bin Zaman (6)
(1) Department of Health Sciences, College of Health and Behavioral Studies, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA
(2) Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA
(3) Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Dhaka University, Bangladesh
(4) Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
(5) Computer Science Department, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, IA, USA
(6) Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health Hudson Institute, Monash University, Australia
* Corresponding author: Raihan K. Khan, Department of Health Sciences, College of Health and Behavioral Studies, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, USA; Phone: +15405686842, Fax: +15405683336; Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage is a major contributor to sugar-based calories in the daily diet of many children. Children (up to 18 years) have different nutritional needs and metabolic pathways than adults. Although many studies explored the health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages among adults, few studies included children in their analysis. The purpose of this review was to evaluate and summarize the current global trends in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and the health effects of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children. The review identified several health effects related to children’s sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, such as childhood obesity, metabolic syndrome, early menarche, and dental caries. A decline in children’s Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was noted in Australia, Canada, Norway, USA, and UK between 2000-2010 but increased in countries such as Mexico and South Korea, and the trend remained stable in China and Russia. Several influencing factors for children’s sugar-sweetened beverage consumption were identified, including parents' perception and attitude towards sugar-sweetened beverage, Children’s gender differences, and socio-economic status (SES). More longitudinal studies are required to determine the cause-effect relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the reported health effects. Researchers should also consider the influence of social and behavioral factors identified in this review when planning intervention programs for children.
1. The World Bank. Population ages 0-14 (% of total). Accessed on November 17, 2020; Available from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS?end=2016&start=1960&view=chart
2. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Early and Middle Childhood, Healthy People 2020. Accessed on November 21, 2020; Available from: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/early-and-middle-childhood
3. Umer A, Kelley GA, Cottrell LE, Giacobbi P, Innes KE, Lilly CL. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review with meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, vol. 17, 2017.
4. World Health Organization. Childhood overweight and obesity. Accessed on November 15, 2020; https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/
5. Perrin JM, Bloom SR, Gortmaker SL. The increase of childhood chronic conditions in the United States. JAMA 2007, 297(24): 2755-2759.
6. Clifford J, Maloney K. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Food and nutrition series. Colorado, USA: Colorado State University 2016. https://extension.colostate.edu/docs/pubs/foodnut/09389.pdf
7. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Sugary Drinks. Accessed on November 16, 2020; Available from:https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/ healthy-drinks/sugary-drinks/
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Get the Facts: Sugar-sweetened beverage and Consumption. Accessed on December 19, 2020; Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/data-statistics/sugar-sweetened-beverages-intake.html
9. Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2004, 79(4): 537-543.
10. Huang M, Quddus A, Stinson L, Shikany JM, Howard BV, Kutob RM, et al. Artificially sweetened beverages, sugar-sweetened beverage, plain water, and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: the prospective Women's Health Initiative observational study. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2017, 106(2): 614-622.
11. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Sugar-sweetened beverage and Consumption. Accessed on October 11, 2020; Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/data-statistics/sugar-sweetened-beverages-intake.html
12. Fernandez E, Perez R, Hernandez A, Tejada P, Arteta M, Ramos JT. Factors and Mechanisms for Pharmacokinetic Differences between Pediatric Population and Adults. Pharmaceutics 2011, 3(1): 53-72.
13. Birch LL, Fisher JO. Development of Eating Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 1998 Mar;101(3 Pt 2):539-49.
14. Mesirow MS, Welsh JA. Changing beverage consumption patterns have resulted in fewer liquid calories in the diets of US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2015, 115(4): 559-566.e554.
15. Ford CN, Ng SW, Popkin BM. Ten-year beverage intake trends among US preschool children: rapid declines between 2003 and 2010 but stagnancy in recent years. Pediatric obesity 2016, 11(1): 47-53.
16. Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM. Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2010, 110(10): 1477-1484.
17. Della Corte K, Fife J, Gardner A, Murphy BL, Kleis L, Della Corte D, et al. World trends in sugar-sweetened beverage and dietary sugar intakes in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Nutrition Reviews 2020.
18. Gibson S, Francis L, Newens K, Livingstone B. Associations between free sugars and nutrient intakes among children and adolescents in the UK. Br J Nutr 2016, 116(7): 1265-1274.
19. Ruiz E, Rodriguez P, Valero T, Avila JM, Aranceta-Bartrina J, Gil A, et al. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic) Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study. Nutrients 2017, 9(3).
20. Bucher Della Torre S, Keller A, Laure Depeyre J, Kruseman M. Sugar-sweetened beverage and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis on How Methodological Quality May Influence Conclusions. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2016, 116(4): 638-659.
21. Morgan RE. Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children? Pediatric obesity 2013, 8(4): 249-254.
22. Nissinen K, Mikkila V, Mannisto S, Lahti-Koski M, Rasanen L, Viikari J, et al. Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Public health nutrition 2009, 12(11): 2018-2026.
23. Lim S, Sohn W, Burt BA, Sandretto AM, Kolker JL, Marshall TA, et al. Cariogenicity of soft drinks, milk and fruit juice in low-income african-american children: a longitudinal study. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 2008, 139(7): 959-967; quiz 995.
24. Bremer AA, Lustig RH. Effects of Sugar-sweetened beverage on Children. Pediatric Annals 2017, 41(1): 26-30.
25. Bortsov AV, Liese AD, Bell RA, Dabelea D, D'Agostino RB, Jr., Hamman RF, et al. Sugar-sweetened and diet beverage consumption is associated with cardiovascular risk factor profile in youth with type 1 diabetes. Acta Diabetol 2011, 48(4): 275-282.
26. Mirmiran P, Yuzbashian E, Asghari G, Hosseinpour-Niazi S, Azizi F. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverage is associated with incidence of metabolic syndrome in Tehranian children and adolescents. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2015, 12: 25.
27. Mueller NT, Jacobs DR, Jr., MacLehose RF, Demerath EW, Kelly SP, Dreyfus JG, et al. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2015, 102(3): 648-654.
28. Carwile JL, Willett WC, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Rich-Edwards J, Frazier AL, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and age at menarche in a prospective study of US girls. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2015, 30(3): 675-683.
29. Nguyen S, Choi HK, Lustig RH, Hsu CY. Sugar-sweetened beverage, serum uric acid, and blood pressure in adolescents. The Journal of pediatrics 2009, 154(6).
30. Hennessy M, Bleakley A, Piotrowski JT, Mallya G, Jordan A. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption by Adult Caregivers and Their Children: The Role of Drink Features and Advertising Exposure. Health education and behavior: the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education 2015, 42(5): 677-686.
31. Llena C, Forner L. Dietary habits in a child population in relation to caries experience. Caries research 2008, 42(5): 387-393.
32. Lee JG, Messer LB. Intake of sweet drinks and sweet treats versus reported and observed caries experience. European archives of paediatric dentistry: official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2010, 11(1): 5-17.
33. Yuen HK, Wiegand RE, Hill EG, Magruder KM, Slate EH, Salinas CF, et al. Factors associated with toothache among African American adolescents living in rural South Carolina. Social work in public health 2011, 26(7): 695-707.
34. Llena C, Leyda A, Forner L, Garcet S. Association between the number of early carious lesions and diet in children with a high prevalence of caries. European journal of paediatric dentistry: official journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2015, 16(1): 7-12.
35. Hebestreit A, Intemann T, Siani A, De Henauw S, Eiben G, Kourides YA, et al. Dietary Patterns of European Children and Their Parents in Association with Family Food Environment: Results from the I.Family Study. Nutrients 2017, 9(2).
36. Pettigrew S, Jongenelis M, Chapman K, Miller C. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks. Appetite 2015, 91: 393-398.
37. Elfhag K, Tholin S, Rasmussen F. Consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks are associated with psychological dimensions of eating behaviour in parents and their 12-year-old children. Public health nutrition 2008, 11(9): 914-923.
38. Bucher T, ETH Zürich DoHS, Technology IoF, Nutrition, Health CJ, Siegrist M, ETH Zürich DoHS, et al. Children's and parents' health perception of different soft drinks. British Journal of Nutrition 2017, 113(3): 526-535.
39. Elinder LS, Heinemans N, Zeebari Z, Patterson E. Longitudinal changes in health behaviours and body weight among Swedish school children - associations with age, gender and parental education – the SCIP school cohort. BMC Public Health 2014, 14(1): 1-9.
40. Persson Osowski C, Fjellstrom C, Olsson U, Goranzon H. Agreement between child and parent reports of 10- to 12-year-old children's meal pattern and intake of snack foods. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics: the official journal of the British Dietetic Association 2012, 25(1): 50-58.
41. Pabayo R, Spence JC, Cutumisu N, Casey L, Storey K. Sociodemographic, behavioural and environmental correlates of sweetened beverage consumption among pre-school children. Public health nutrition 2012, 15(8): 1338-1346.
42. Park S, Pan L, Sherry B, Li R. The association of sugar-sweetened beverage intake during infancy with sugar-sweetened beverage intake at 6 years of age. Pediatrics 2014, 134 Suppl 1: S56-62.
43. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood Obesity Causes and Consequences. Accessed on December 10, 2020; Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/causes.html
44. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. LDL and HDL: Good and Bad Cholesterol. Accessed on November 29, 2020; Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/cholesterol/ldl_hdl.htm
45. Paffen E, Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Centre DoH, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands, deMaat MPM, Department of Hematology RE, Erasmus University Medical Center, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. C-reactive protein in atherosclerosis: A causal factor? Cardiovascular Research 2020, 71(1): 30-39.
46. S K, AS K. Review of Childhood Obesity: From Epidemiology, Etiology, and Comorbidities to Clinical Assessment and Treatment. Mayo Clinic proceedings 2017, 92(2).
47. World Health Organization. Sugars and dental caries. Accessed on December 12, 2020; Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/sugars-and-dental-caries
48. M L, C vL. Chapter 7: Sugar and Dental Caries. Monographs in oral science, vol. 28. Monogr Oral Sci, 2020.
49. Allison CM, Hyde JS. Early Menarche: Confluence of Biological and Contextual Factors. Sex Roles 2011, 68(1): 55-64.
50. Case A, Paxson C. Parental Behavior and Child Health. Health Affairs 2002, 21(2).
51. Matud MP. Gender and Health. Gender Differences in Different Contexts. IntechOpen, 2017. Accessed on November 14, 2020; Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/gender-differences-in-different-contexts/gender-and-health
52. KL K, SMR K, B F, AL P, NA R, T M, et al. A Biopsychosocial Model of Sex Differences in Children's Eating Behaviors. Nutrients 2019, 11(3).
53. J C, M S. Socioeconomic Status and Child Health: Why is the Relationship Stronger for Older Children? The American economic review 2003, 93(5).
54. Chen E. Why Socioeconomic Status Affects the Health of Children: A Psychosocial Perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science 2004, 13(3): 112-115.
55. JA S. Diet-related disparities: understanding the problem and accelerating solutions. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009, 109(4).
56. Wang Y, Tussing L, Odoms-Young A, Braunschweig C, Flay B, Hedeker D, et al. Obesity prevention in low socio-economic status urban African-American adolescents: study design and preliminary findings of the HEALTH-KIDS Study. European journal of clinical nutrition 2005, 60(1): 92-103.
57. The World Bank. The World by Income and Region. Accessed on December 19, 2020; Available from: https://datatopics.worldbank.org/world-development-indicators/the-world-by-income-and-region.html
58. American Heart Association. What is the Mediterranean Diet? Accessed on December 18, 2020; Available from: https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/mediterranean-diet
59. D T, P L. Mediterranean diet and overall mortality differences in the European Union. Public health nutrition 2004, 7(7).
60. Drewnowski A, P A, Popkin BM. The Nutrition Transition: New Trends in the Global Diet. Nutrition Reviews 2020, 55(2): 31-43.
61. Popkin BM, Horton S, Kim S. The Nutritional Transition and Diet-Related Chronic Diseases In Asia: Implications For Prevention. Accessed on November 15,2020; Available from: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/16447
62. Friis RH. Epidemiology for public health practice, 5th ed edn. Jones and Bartlett Learning: Burlington, Mass, 2014.
63. Laverty AA, Magee L, Monteiro CA, Saxena S, Millett C. Sugar and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and adiposity changes: National longitudinal study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015 Oct 26;12:137
64. Cunningham SA, Zavodny M. Does the sale of sweetened beverages at school affect children's weight? Soc Sci Med. 2011 Nov;73(9):1332-9.
65. Fiorito LM, Marini M, Mitchell DC, Smiciklas-Wright H, Birch LL. Girls' early sweetened carbonated beverage intake predicts different patterns of beverage and nutrient intake across childhood and adolescence. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Apr;110(4):543-50.
66. Lim S, Zoellner JM, Lee JM, Burt BA, Sandretto AM, Sohn W, Ismail AI, Lepkowski JM. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverage in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Jun;17(6):1262-8.
67. Brand-Miller JC, Barclay AW. Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverage in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):854-863.